How to make soap at home “from scratch”
How to make 100% natural soap at home? Very simple: create soap “from scratch.” Soap is the result of a chemical reaction between the alkali (sodium or potassium) and fatty acids (coconut oil, palm, olive, etc.). This process is called saponification, and the result is a salt – soap.
Not all soap-makers decide to make soap from scratch. Most are hesitant to work with alkalis.
For this project it is important:
– Your desire to make 100% natural soap;
– Compliance with safety regulations.
For making soap from scratch, we will use two alkalis: NaOH (sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide) and KOH (potassium hydroxide, caustic potash). The choice depends on what type of soap you want to create:
– Solid – NaOH;
– Liquid – KOH;
– Cream soap – NaOH + KOH.
It should be remembered that the alkali is a dangerous active substance. If dry, alkaline is not too active, but it is very soluble in water, thus in this condition there is plenty of heat. Take into account the fact that water is present in an amount sufficient to react even on dry skin, not to mention the mucous membranes. On the skin and mucous membranes, lye can cause chemical burns. In the case of inhalation of vapors and aerosols, caustic vapors are irritating to the upper respiratory tract. When you come in contact with a caustic alkali, administration of first aid is important to reduce severe pain along the esophagus and stomach, vomiting with blood, pain and shock.
Remember: the presence of animals and children in the area where work with lye, is unacceptable!
The theory of using alkalis is dangerous and you need to implement safety procedures to prevent harm to yourself and to others. Practicing safety will allow you to create the perfect product for health and beauty. In working with alkali, prevention is better. And the rules are simple and logically taken from the possible harmful effect of alkalis:
– Protect yourself using eye glasses!
– Protect yourself using respiratory respirators!
– Protect your skin using covered clothing, aprons, gloves, and hair – a hat or a scarf!
In addition, when working with lye, you should follow certain rules so you can avoid all unpleasant accidents:
Pour lye into the water, not vice versa. Add lye slowly, stirring constantly, gradually increasing the concentration of alkaline solution. If you do the opposite and add water to the lye, there will be a violent chemical reaction with great heat and vapor of alkali.
Liquid for alkali solution should be well chilled. It’s better if you freeze it and use it just like ice. At this condition you are more likely to be able to avoid alkali vapor emissions when it dissolves. If you use a non-refrigerated liquid, the result of a chemical reaction would be a violent boil, emitting corrosive fumes.
While mixing lye do not lean over the container with water. It is better to stay away from it at arm’s length to prevent harm.
To avoid the risk of tipping the solution tank with stirring is best to put it in the sink and turn on the cold water to provide extra cooling solution.
The room where you are working, should be well ventilated by opening a window, you can also include a hood if your room has one.
If any liquid comes in contact on your skin, the main thing is do not panic. Place the affected area under running water and treat with vinegar or lemon juice (keep them on hand.) Acid neutralizes alkali, and you’ll avoid unpleasant consequences. If, in any area of the skin got in contact with alkali, it is best to remove it without the use of water, and then treat the skin with vinegar.
With practice, you will be able to work confidently with alkali and to handle any emergencies with the best course of action. If you are ready, then its time to make your soap from scratch:
– Prepare the recipe for your soap.
– Measure out the required amount of oil (preferably solid and liquid oil to put in different containers).
– Weigh the liquid (ice), according to the recipe.
– Measure additional useful components and grease.
– Place the solid oils, waxes melt in a water bath.
– Wear protective equipment (goggles, mask, apron, gloves).
– Weigh the lye in a glass or plastic container (you can use disposable plastic cups or containers out of sour cream, yogurt).
– Place a container of ice in the sink and turn on the cold water.
– Gradually pour out lye on the ice, stirring constantly. The ice will begin to melt immediately.
– After complete dissolution pour lye solution into the oil mixture through a strainer (plastic or stainless steel). Mix.
– These are the basic rules, tips and steps making soap.
We already know that in order to make natural soap you need three basic ingredients: lye, water and grease. The basis for making soap are fat, both plant and animal origin. Vegetable oils are divided into liquid and solid. Liquid vegetable oils are also known as basic or transport, as they are the basis (base) to dilute essential oils and transport useful components on the skin. Solid vegetable oil on the other hand is called butter (for example, shea butter), some oil belongs to the semi-solid or soft oils for their consistency (e.g., coconut oil). All vegetable oils have certain therapeutic properties, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients.
One of the benefits of cooking natural soaps is that you can make soap ideal for your individual preferences: moisturizing or nourishing, cleansing and healing and so on. You need to become better acquainted with the properties of oils used in soap making to be able to do these.
Soap can cook like oil, and a mixture of vegetable and animal fats. The most popular are the following monomials (using one oil):
– Castile soap: the classic version of the soap is boiled at 100% olive oil and matures at least six months. This soap is like fine wine, the longer you brew it, it only gets better. Castile soap is very delicate and suitable for all skin types, especially for sensitive and allergy-prone skin. It is so gentle that even used for bathing infants.
– Palm soap: brewed from palm oil, soap, obtained with very economical consumption and has less foam;
– Coconut soaps, cooked with coconut oil, forming large rich foam, also called soap sailors for its ability to foam even in cold sea water, but it can dry the skin;
– Soap from shea butter: this soap leaves a truly chic feeling on the skin after application, soap cleans well, but does not dry the skin.
However, not all oils are able to create a balanced soap on all counts, oftentimes you need to use a mixture of oils. Each oil is responsible for certain properties and physical characteristics of the soap: color, hardness, ductility, foaming, cleansing, conditioning effect, etc. This is all taken into account in the recipe to make soap.
First you need to determine the oils that will be the basis, the foundation of your soaps. Logically, a solid oil (buttery) will be responsible primarily for the hardness of soap, and liquid vegetable oils taking account of conditioning and caring for the property.
Usually use the following formula for a balanced soaps:
– 60% of the oil should be oil, are responsible for the hardness of soap (palm, coconut, palm kernel, babassu, mango butter, shea butter);
– 25% – oil that contributes to foam (castor, coconut, palm, palm kernel, babassu, olive);
– 15% – oil that has air conditioning and caring properties (almond oil, avocado oil, shea butter, mango butter, cocoa butter, grape seed oil, jojoba oil, apricot seeds, macadamia oil, etc.).
Initially soap should perform its primary function: purification, so when cooking soap, you usually include natural soaps in the oil gives it good cleaning power. These oils / fats include murumuru oil, babassu oil, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, goat fat, butter, mutton fat, beef fat. Oil responsible for cleaning, promotes so much foam. If their total number is over 30%, the soap can parch your skin.
In addition to the soap used, there is such a thing as Super Fat, SF. These are oils that do not react with the alkali, and retaining all its useful properties, give them soap as caring, softening, moisturizing agents. For example, when cooking soap for normal skin adds another 5-8% of caregivers of the total weight of essential oils, and for very dry skin butter percentage can go up to 15%.
In drawing up the recipe for soap it is also important to note that some of the oil may go rancid. Soaps with oils that easily goes bad it may stain and cause odor. Among these oils: sunflower, walnut oil, linseed oil, corn oil, lard, butter hazelnut. Soap, which is composed of rancid butter must not be used at all. Examples of oils that do not spoil are olive, jojoba, cocoa, palm, coconut, palm kernel, oil poppy and soybean oil.
Each oil composition differs acids that react differently with the alkali. Recipe used to produce special programs, called soap calculators. With them is computed as needed and liquid alkali for saponification certain kind of oil.
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